Land status within suitable gophersnake habitat (from Haney and Sarell 2007). 1999. However, some low elevation harvesting may actually improve habitat, providing there is no silviculture and the area remains as grassland or parkland. Status report for the Gopher Snake in British Columbia.

Gibbons, and N. Chernoff (eds). Only about 15% of the range of the Great Basin Gophersnake is not intersected by roads or has a low road density (Hobbs pers. Davis, H. 2010. 2000. Rodríguez-Robles and De Jesús-Escobar (2000) mapped the subspecies as present through south-central B.C., eastern portions of Washington, Oregon and California, southern Idaho, throughout Utah, northern Arizona, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming (Figure 3). 2001. Rodríguez-Robles, J.A., and J.M.

Gopher snakes are nonvenomous reptiles native to the western United States. The majority of suitable habitat was >1 km from protected lands. Hobson and Associates.

report prepared for BC Environment, Penticton, British Columbia. Bertram et al. A spatial analysis of the database of 318 communal snake dens in the southern interior of B.C. 1998. 2011b. Hence, they may be used as surrogates for other species that den communally with them. The life history strategy employed by gophersnakes was characterized as including late maturity, large size, small clutches, and high adult survivorship. Sarell, M.J., and D. Shanner. University of California Press, Berkley, California. Because of its low reproductive rate and late age at maturity, seasonal migrations, and habit of lingering on warm roads, this snake is especially vulnerable to road mortality.

Additional protected areas have been designated, and WHAs have been established to guide management of important gophersnake habitat on provincial Crown lands. No snakes were captured more than once at a den in fall.

Grazing can degrade habitat, reduce small mammal numbers and diversity, reduce cover, increase erosion and soil compaction, and change species’ composition (reviewed in Fleischner 1994). Gopher Snakes (and cohorts): an assessment of selected den sites in the Penticton, Vernon, Merritt and Boundary Forest Districts. n. in deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) and gopher snakes Pituophis melanoleucus (Daudin). Weatherhead. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, South Carolina. comm. Web site: [accessed October 2011]. Frequency of gophersnake use of hibernacula that are also used by other snake species in British Columbia (M. Sarell, Appendix 2.

Best management practices are recommendations only and are not legislated requirements.

The Great Basin Gophersnake is at the northern edge of its global range in B.C., and its populations are likely limited by cool conditions (Waye and Shewchuk 2002). Demographic effects of road mortality in black ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta). Hodges, and C.A.

It is protected under the provincial Wildlife Act, which prohibits killing or capturing individuals or keeping them captive except under provincial permit. Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario.

(2013) quantified cat predation on birds and mammals from several studies and found it to be a significant source of mortality. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2013. The dorsal surface and sides of the relatively stout body are marked with 57 – 95 regularly spaced dark brown (black anteriorly) rectangular blotches, becoming 12 – 22 alternating stripes on the tail (Stull 1940; Ernst and Ernst 2003).

They prefer hot and dry climates. Ecology of reptiles in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area. Prey items reported in the literature are listed in Table 2. The lower threshold body temperature for normal movement of captive juveniles is 18°C; the minimum core temperature was 3.0°C and the maximum 40.5°C (Brattstrom 1965 cited in Ernst and Ernst 2003).

Mainly man.

2001; Lomas et al. Recovery strategy for the Gopher Snake, deserticola subspecies (Pituophis catenifer deserticola) in British Columbia. Map of the global range of the Great Basin Gophersnake in western North America.

Although the calculated mortality rate was only 0.026 deaths/crossing, it was sufficient to increase the probability of extinction of the study population from 7.3% to 99% over 500 years.

The province is estimated to support <5% of the global population (Southern Interior Reptile and Amphibian Recovery Team 2008). The spread of non-native invasive plants, such as Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), has been linked to declines in gophersnake abundance in some areas (Hall et al.

The total loss of grasslands from mid-1800 to 2005 was estimated as 16.1%, representing 619,874 ha.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Two of 3 radio-tagged gophersnakes monitored by Bertram et al. Campbell, R.W.

All three were formerly included with pine snakes as subspecies of Pituophis melanoleucus but have now been separated as different species based upon mitochondrial and nuclear DNA differences(Rodríguez-Robles and De Jesús-Escobar 2000; Pyron and Burbrink 2009). Web site: [accessed April 2011]. COSEWIC MandateThe Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. Estimating survival rates of uncatchable animals: the myth of high juvenile mortality in reptiles. The most frequent prey of P. catenifer (subspecies not given) in California were small mammals, followed in decreasing order of frequency by bird eggs, birds, lizards, snakes, amphibians, frog eggs, reptile eggs, and insects (Rodríguez-Robles 1998, 2002). 2001; Brown 2006; White 2008). 2013). Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in [area, extent and/or quality] of habitat? The average size of WHAs around snake dens is 193 ha; this may not be sufficiently large to provide protection for the snake population using a hibernaculum at its centre (Williams et al. The Great Basin Gophersnake is on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act, which prohibits killing or capturing the snakes or destroying their residences on federal lands.

COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Great Basin Gophersnake Pituophis catenifer deserticola in Canada. Reason for designationThis large, non-venomous snake is restricted in Canada to the dry southern interior of British Columbia, where it occurs within landscapes fragmented by roads, orchards, vineyards, and houses. The Bullsnake (P. c. sayi) occurs in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Rectilinear movement is slow, and it may take more than 2 minutes for a snake to travel across a 2-lane road (Sarell pers. Sarell, M.J., S. Robertson, and A. Haney. Is the total population severely fragmented?

Ashley. 2011). When threatened, gophersnakes may produce a rattlesnake-like display of tail vibration, hissing and striking.

There are reports of gophersnake sightings as far north as the Chilcotin River and the Highway 20 bridge over the Fraser River (Steciw pers. 2011. Web site: http://www.bcgrasslands.org/projects/conservation/mapping.htm [accessed February 2012]. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Rescue Effect (immigration from outside Canada). (2011) also reported that radio-tagged gophersnakes on the Osoyoos Indian Reserve most often used rock (including talus and outcrops) and Antelope Brush (Purshia tridentata) habitat. Environmental issues and options for the South Okanagan Regional Growth Strategy. The greatest threat to gophersnake populations is from road traffic. and the Gulf Islands but is now considered extirpated (BC Conservation Data Centre 2011a). 2001; Sarell pers. The analysis was conducted for Western Rattlesnakes, but it also pertains to Gophersnakes, which are known from a number of these dens. Hibernacula known to be used by other snake species, such as Western Rattlesnakes, Western Yellow-bellied Racers, and Common Gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), may be also used by gophersnakes (Sarell pers. Snakes crossing roads may be targeted by drivers.

Table 5.

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